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Oculoplastic surgery deals with the deformities or abnormalities of the eyelids, the eye sockets (orbit) and the tear ducts (lacrimal system). Aging, injuries, birth defects, inherited disorders, infections, inflammations, tumors and other acquired conditions usually cause changes in the area around the eyes. Surgery is usually done to treat a medical condition or for cosmetic purposes.

Eyelid conditions:

  • Ptosis – It refers to the drooping of one of both upper eyelids. Depending on the extent of the drooping, people with ptosis may experience difficulty seeing. Surgery is the best treatment for ptosis.
  • Entropion – It occurs when the eyelid turns inwards, causing eyelashes to rub against the cornea.
  • Ectropion – It occurs when the eyelid turns outward, leading to excessive tearing or eye dryness, eye irritation or sensitivity to light.
  • Blepharospasm – Blepharospasm is the excessive uncontrolled blinking, causing patients to experience difficulty keeping the eyes open. They may also suffer from sensitivity to light, blurry vision and facial spasm.
  • Lagophthalmos – The inability to fully close the eyelids, lagophthalmos may lead to increased tearing and foreign body sensation. There may also be pain due to dryness during sleep and blurry vision that results from excessive tearing.
  • Trauma – It refers to the lacerations to complex multiple injuries to the eyelid.
  • Tumors – Growths on the eye, whether benign or malignant, require excision and repair to restore normal eyelid function. These include chalazion, cyst, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and sebaceous cell carcinoma.

Orbit conditions:

  • Eye problems caused Graves Thyroid Eye Disease – swelling of the structures in the eye socket, particularly the muscles and fat due to the abnormality in the thyroid function, causing the eyeball to bulge forward.
  • Pseudomotor Condition – It is the non-infectious painful swelling of structures within the eye.
  • Cellulites or infection of the soft tissue within the eye socket – It is the infection of the soft tissue within the eye socket.
  • Trauma – It refers to the fractures or breaks in the bony orbital walls. These may cause misalignment of the eyes or deformities of the face.
  • Tumors – Benign or malignant tumors within the eye socket can cause displacement of the eyeball, limitation of eye movement and deterioration of vision.
  • Acquired anophthalmia
    • Enucleation – It is the surgical removal of the eyeball. It includes orbital implant placement followed by fitting of an artificial eye.
    • Exenteration – It refers to the surgical removal of the content of the eye sockets.

Lacrimal system conditions:

  • Infections – The infected tear sac and obstructed tear drainage can cause watering of the eyes with discharge.
  • Blocked tear duct – Blocked tear drainage (may be congenital or acquired) can lead to excessive tearing.
  • Trauma – This may include lacerations in the tear channels and fracture of the bone surrounding the tear duct.
  • Tumors – Benign or malignant tumors of the tear sac or tear duct can result in bloody tear discharge.

Since the tissue and structure surrounding the eye play a significant role in the patient’s ability to see, it is important that an experienced plastic surgeon checks, recommends treatment or performs the surgery.